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How to Locate Protected Wetlands

Protected wetlands are natural areas protected by law, and characterized by lakes, marshes or bogs and lots of vegetation and wildlife. There are several reasons why you may want to locate protected wetlands. If you are interested in studying or protecting nature, you might like to know where to fin

How to Build an AC to DC Converter Circuit

Most households and businesses throughout the world use alternating current (AC) electrical energy to run devices plugged into wall outlets. However, some devices, such as radios and CD players, require direct current (DC) electrical energy to operate. Many of these devices utilize a power adapter t

Wind Vane Facts

A wind vane, also commonly known as a weather vane, is a pointer that rotates on top of a rod. According to the article "A Brief History of Weather Vanes," by Denninger Weather Vanes and Finials, an astronomer, Andronicus, built the earliest recorded wind vane in 48 B.C. Vikings used wind vanes begi

How to Build a Black MTG Deck

Since 1994, Magic: The Gathering has entertained strategy card-game enthusiasts with its intricate rule-set, combining elements of luck, skill and the ongoing expansion of new cards. Players must build a deck consisting of one or more of the five available colors, in order to compete in Magic: The G

How to Test Using Ninhydrin

Using ninhydrin to test for the presence of amino acids is a fast and sensitive method. It also provides clear results with a dramatic color change for a positive result. The formation of an anion in the solution leads to a significant change in electron confinement, resulting in the final deep purp

How to Form Thin Sheets of MDF by Wetting

Wetting thin sheets of Medium Density Fiberboard allows you to shape them using a form or mold. The fibers tend to swell when moisture is applied, but wetting the sheets sparingly will provide excellent shaping results. A common spray bottle is sufficient to apply moisture to the MDF because soaking

Common Characteristics of Natural Crystals

The incredibly flat surfaces of crystals, known as facets, are what make them shiny.crystals image by Vasiliy Koval from Fotolia.comCrystals are solid, homologous substances, which means that the atoms, molecules and ions packed into their unit cells can vary, while their structures...

California Wetland Plants

California's coastal wetlands provide habitats for plants.Alvis Upitis/Brand X Pictures/Getty ImagesCalifornia wetlands include swamps, marshes and bogs. Examples of California wetland vegetation are cattails, mangroves, sedges, bald cypress, willow trees and rushes. Many plants native to...

How to Test Fuels in a Lab

Combustion requires a fuel, an oxidant and an ignition source. Most fuels consist of hydrocarbons --- compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen, possibly along with other elements such as oxygen. Hydrocarbon fuels produce carbon dioxide (CO2), and water (H2O) as their combustion products, along wit

How to Mount a PCB for SMD LEDs

Every electronic device is made up of one or more Printed Circuit Boards, or PCBs. As technology is improving and component sizes are getting smaller, the complexity of these PCBs is increasing. To make these boards smaller, Surface Mount Devices, or SMDs, are now commonly used in place of larger pa

How to Make a USB LED Light

Commercial USB LED desk lights can be fully-functional lighting devices for viewing your documents and lighting your workspace. Most do-it-yourself desk lights, on the other hand, are simple, hastily-constructed conversation pieces built on-the-fly. Building a USB desk light out of junk from around

Methods of DNA Extraction in Plants

Extracting genetic material from plants has become an important part of modern mechanized agriculture. By extracting and modifying DNA, genetically modified plant species can be produced that are resistant to certain herbicides and pesticides, thus increasing yields in fields using patented crops an

How to Calculate the Relative Molecular Mass

The molecular mass of a molecular substance is the mass of the substance's smallest constituent particle, the molecule. Molecules are groups of two or more atoms connected by attractions called chemical bonds. The periodic table of the chemical elements contains the masses of all known atoms. To cal

Art and Crafts Using Recycled Plastic Light Bulb Containers

Fluorescent tube light bulbs are often stored for recycling in rigid, cylindrical plastic tubes. This way they can be stored safely until they need can be recycled. This is important as broken tubes can release dangerous chemical. These containers are ideal for a whole range of craft projects, bein

How to Calculate Bessel Function

Bessel functions are cylindrically symmetric solutions to a second-order differential equation called the Bessel Equation, which can be written as: (z^2)*F''(z) + z*F'(z) - (z^2 + n^2)*F(z)=0; where F' refers to the first derivative of the function F with respect to z, an

Types of Engravers

Engraving machines are useful for inscribing virtually any design or phrase you want onto a variety of materials from precious metals to plastic. Engravers have been around since the late 1930s and have been subject to technological advancements. There are three main types of engraving...

Homemade Wood Gun Rack

A wooden gun rack can be a convenient and attractive way to display and store your guns. The basic design is not complex and a rack can be simple to make. There are many wooden gun rack designs, using a variety of woods; one popular rack plan includes a basic frame that holds three guns with a stora